The new era of embedded systems in the era of the Internet of Things
Internet of Things and cloud computing are not hype. They are the products of the era of embedded system and Internet technology at the advanced stage. When the Internet of Things is lively, it will inevitably enter a rational era. A deeper understanding of the history of the embedded system can help to clarify the nature of the Internet of Things and cloud computing. At present, in the field of Internet of Things and cloud computing, there is a lack of an embedded system perspective. The construction of the Internet of Things system and the application of the Internet of Things system are new opportunities for embedded systems in the Internet of Things era.
1 monolithic, embedded, IoT trinity embedded system
MCU and embedded system are the same things in different era concepts, and have experienced many unknown birth environments and development processes. The concept of single-chip microcomputer appeared before the birth of the PC, and the concept of embedded system was born after the birth of the PC. Whether it is a single-chip or an embedded system, they all exhibit the characteristics of a single piece, embedded, and object-linked trinity. The "single-chip" machine emphasizes the form, the "embedded" system emphasizes the application form, and the "intermediary" is the essence of them.
In 1971, Intel introduced the world's first microprocessor, the 4-bit microprocessor 4004. Then came the 8-bit 8008. In 1974, 8008 was developed into 8080, becoming the second generation of microprocessors. Its purpose was to replace electronic logic circuit devices and apply them to various circuit systems and devices, thus starting an attempt at embedded processors. Subsequently, a large number of single-chip microcomputers (microcontrollers) came into being, such as the 3870 series MCU of Mosttek and Fairchild in 1974, the 8048 MCU of Intel Corporation in 1976, the PIC1650 series MCU of GI Company in 1977, and the Rockwell Company of 1978. The 6500 series of single-chip microcomputers, as well as the MCS51 series of single-chip microcomputers introduced by Intel Corporation in 1980, are essentially microcontrollers based on embedded processors. On August 12, 1981, IBM introduced the world's first personal computer, the IBM PC, based on the Intel 8088 microprocessor.
After the PC appeared, the computer went out of the machine room and became a popular tool. Both the computing field and the industrial control field are hoping for computers, which gave birth to the two concepts of general computer systems and embedded computer systems. The embedded computer system attempts to follow the mode of the PC, and the road of the single board machine, the industrial computer, and the single-chip microcomputer (6801 series) has entered a dead end. In the computer world, the "embedded computer system" has died, and the "embedded system" has always existed. So that after more than 20 years, the MCU has the title and perspective of "embedded system".
In fact, before the birth of the PC, the microcontroller also found the best "microcontroller" application mode for embedded applications. At that time, due to the emphasis on its own independent monolithic form, it was called a single-chip microcomputer, which is a microcontroller that realizes single-chip embedded application, and controls physical objects. Therefore, "single piece", "embedded", "object" is the inherent nature of the trinity or intrinsicity of single-chip or embedded systems.
2 three eras of embedded system development
From the above historical arguments, it can be clearly understood that the single-chip microcomputer and embedded system are concepts that are derived from different eras and different disciplines. According to the current "embedded system" title, the embedded system can be divided into three eras, namely, the era of single-chip microcomputer, multi-disciplinary integration, and the Internet of Things.
2.1 The era of single-chip microcomputers (1974 to the end of the 20th century)
The era of single-chip microcomputers, that is, the era of independent development in the field of electronic technology after the birth of single-chip microcomputer. The main task is the intelligent transformation of traditional tools. Most of the microcontroller applications are in the field of electronics. Although the computer industry realizes that computers face the two challenges of "computing" and "intelligent control" and put forward the concept of two branches of general-purpose computer and embedded computer system, they have entered the microcomputer in the development of embedded computer systems. The dead end of the industrial computer, single board, and single chip. Coupled with the tight coupling between embedded applications and objects, it can not afford the responsibility of embedded applications, thus exiting the field of microcontroller applications. The era of single-chip microcomputers is an era of single-handedness in the field of electronic technology. Under such circumstances, many people in the field of microcontrollers do not know what an embedded system is.
2.2 The era of multidisciplinary integration (the first decade of the 21st century)
The era of multidisciplinary integration is related to the post-PC era. After the general-purpose computer got rid of the embedded application, it entered a period of rapid development for more than 20 years. Computers have evolved from mass technology to Intel and Microsoft's monopoly technology. At the same time, the huge market temptation of embedded applications has enabled a large number of computer professionals to switch to microcontroller applications and activate the concept of "embedded systems." The embedded system of this period is a period of development of multidisciplinary cross-integration. The era of multidisciplinary and multidisciplinary integration is related to the post-PC era. After the general-purpose computer got rid of the embedded application, it entered a period of rapid development for more than 20 years. Computers have evolved from mass technology to Intel and Microsoft's monopoly technology. At the same time, the huge market temptation of embedded applications has enabled a large number of computer professionals to switch to microcontroller applications and activate the concept of "embedded systems." The embedded system of this period is a period of development of multidisciplinary cross-integration. Multi-disciplinary cross-combination greatly enhances the application level of single-chip microcomputer. Formed a rapid development period of embedded system applications, embedded applications have broken through the intelligent transformation of traditional electronic systems, creating a multitude of new concepts of intelligent systems.
2.3 The Internet of Things era (the second decade of the 21st century)
The Internet of Things era is the era of network applications for embedded systems. After the birth of the single-chip microcomputer, the only application method is the object link, from the single-chip object to the bus object. As early as 1987, based on the RUPI44 microcontroller, Intel introduced a distributed object-to-wire system (BIT BUS), which promoted the network of the single-chip microcomputer. Since then, various bus technologies, such as RS422/485, CAN BUS, and fieldbus technology, have formed numerous wired local area network systems. After the emergence of wireless sensor networks, the embedded system local area Internet of Things entered a comprehensive (wired, wireless) development era. At the same time, MCU's Ethernet access technology has made a major breakthrough. Many mature Ethernet single-chip microcomputers and single-chip Ethernet interface devices enable many embedded systems and embedded system local area Internet of Things to be easily connected to the Internet. Advance the Internet and embedded systems into a new era of the Internet of Things.
3 Embedded System Opportunities in the Internet of Things Era
We can clearly see that the embedded system has experienced more than 30 years of ups and downs. Whether it is stand-alone IoT, local IoT, or Ethernet access, GPS space-time calibration technology is mature, for embedded systems, the Internet of Things era is not a challenge but a new opportunity.
“Single-chip”, “embedded”, and “intermediary” are the three essential features of a single-chip or embedded system. In the era of intelligent transformation in the field of early traditional electronic technology, the application characteristics of single-chip microcomputers in embedded systems were highlighted; the era of multi-disciplinary integration highlighted the embedded application characteristics of processors. When entering the Internet of Things era, it should emphasize the characteristics of the embedded system. Many single-chip labs and embedded system labs in colleges and universities can also be called IOT labs or IoT labs; many embedded system LANs (such as smart homes) can be called local Internet of Things (such as the Internet of Things). Home). Whether in the field of embedded systems, whether they are aware of this opportunity, they will be involved in this wave of opportunities.
The construction of the Internet of Things platform is an important opportunity for embedded systems in the Internet of Things era. It is embodied in the Internet of Things system, perfecting the normalized Ethernet interconnection technology; in the embedded application of the object field, it constantly creates new IoT application systems and actively participates in the construction of large-scale IoT national projects.
The major challenges in the Internet of Things era are reflected in the Internet and government departments. The Internet of Things requires major upgrades in Internet quality (bandwidth, real-time, security), and major breakthroughs in management methods and management models. Government departments should focus on government policies and major engineering construction projects, such as Internet-related laws and regulations, national database construction, infrastructure construction, and major Internet of Things systems engineering.
4 embedded system voice in the Internet of Things
The Internet of Things is the product of multidisciplinary integration. The deep understanding of the Internet of Things must have a multidisciplinary and comprehensive vision. The deep research on the Internet of Things is like a blind person. It is impossible for any subject to make a correct interpretation of the Internet of Things. Embedded systems are an important part of the Internet of Things, but the embedded system's right to speak in the Internet of Things is rarely seen. Many IoT experts understand the Internet of Things only in sensor networks, RFID, IoT, Internet extension, etc. No one talks about how sensors, RFID, etc. extend the Internet to physical objects.
Long-term recognition, many reasons make MCU, embedded system experts lack the right to speak in the field of national IT industry policy. The objective reason is that due to the implicit nature of embedded systems, only embedded system professionals can understand the important role of embedded systems in the IT industry; the subjective reason is that many embedded system professionals do not pay attention to the understanding of embedded systems. History and the future, lacking their own language.
The arrival of the Internet of Things era will make the embedded system come to the forefront from the background and undertake the major national project of the Internet of Things. In the major national engineering decision-making of the Internet of Things, the lack of any field perspective will affect the healthy development of China's Internet of Things. To let policy decision makers understand embedded systems, embedded system experts must have their own language. When computer experts say that embedded systems are "dedicated computers", there should also be embedded systems that are "based on embedded processors. The perspective of intelligent electronic systems embedded in the object system; when communication experts say that "the Internet of Things is an extension of the Internet", people should be told that "the Internet of Things is the transformation of the embedded system local area Internet of Things to the Internet, it will Internet information network, human network changed to physical network"; when computer experts interpret "cloud computing" from the perspective of computing, it should let people understand that cloud computing is an all-round software service based on the Internet of Things. It can be seen that in a multidisciplinary field of large science and technology, the multidisciplinary perspective of multi-disciplinary experts is very important for correct public opinion guidance and government policy formulation.
5 Construction of large-scale national projects of the Internet of Things
The Internet of Things is a large-scale science and technology project with globalization, unlimited time and space, unlimited fields and multi-disciplines. The Internet of Things technology has its own market development rules. The government's responsibility lies in understanding the development laws of the Internet of Things and cloud computing, formulating corresponding national policies and establishing major national engineering projects in a timely manner. In these major engineering projects, embedded systems are involved in a variety of knowledge platforms.
5.1 National notary construction of GPS space-time parameters
Time-space calibration parameters are important, basic physical parameters in IoT events. The spatiotemporal physical parameters should be accurate and reliable, and the spatiotemporal calibration parameters are important and basic physical parameters in the IoT event. Temporal and spatial physical parameters should be accurate and reliable, and legally notarized. The legal notarization system for time and space parameters is based on Beidou's GPS space-time positioning platform construction, GPS chip and IP integration, space-time calibration of the Internet of Things system, and national notarization regulations for space-time calibration.
5.2 Effective Securities Electronicization National Certification Project Construction
Effective electronic securities and identity certification are expected to eventually eliminate the soil that breeds evil. In the effective securities electronicization national certification project, effective electronic means of securities, cloud storage input, authentication, security system, and effective identity verification system, national database of effective securities (cloud storage, cloud privacy, cloud security) should be established. , the legal certification system for electronically valid securities, etc.
5.3 National Engineering Construction of the Internet of Things Legal System
The Internet of Things is an economic system, a social system, and an industrial system that interact with each other. Many Internet of Things events are real economic behaviors, social behaviors, and industrial behaviors, and must be governed by legal systems. The construction of the Internet of Things legal system cannot be delayed. The construction of the Internet of Things legal system includes: the legal system planning of the virtual world behavior rules, the legal system construction of time and space notarization, the legal system construction of the effective securities certification system, and the construction and supervision of the real-name system integrity system.
5.4 National Engineering Construction of Internet of Things Healthcare System
On the basis of the Internet of Things, many large-scale national IoT system engineering projects can be built. Among them, the national engineering construction of the Internet of Things medical system is imminent. The Internet of Things medical system is expected to fundamentally solve problems such as difficult medical treatment, medical corruption, and frequent medical accidents, so that everyone can enjoy top-level medical services on an equal footing. The project of the IoT medical system includes a medical expert knowledge base, a medical guidance system, an intelligent biochemical medical detection system, a robotic medical diagnosis and treatment system, and a medical management system construction. The construction of the IoT medical system is mainly the integration of various knowledge platforms. The unlimited replication and unlimited fan-out capabilities of the knowledge platform will enable the top medical services of the IoT medical system to reach thousands of households.